About

Home >

Of Human Bondage (Bantam)
W. Somerset Maugham

To make a collection–it doesn't much matter what–adds an enduring interest to life and when the collector has at last found some rare piece that for years he has been looking for, he feels as proud and triumphant as a general who has won a battle. There must be few objects that at one time or another have not been enthusiastically sought after.... Of all such objects for collection I think that to collect first editions is the most interesting, but that, of course, may be only because I am a writer myself. (By Way of a Preface to A Comprehensive Exhibition of the Writings of W. Somerset Maugham, Stanford University, 1958)

The first book I read by W. Somerset Maugham was, as is the case with many other readers, Of Human Bondage; it was a Bantam paperback with Edward Burra's painting The Snack Bar as cover. I was in my teens and I did not like it too well; a boy with a club foot did not seem interesting enough to occupy 600 pages. I read all the words without taking anything in and put it aside. 

Cover of 1936 edition of Of Human Bondage by Maugham
Of Human Bondage 1936
Later on, I read a short story here, a short story there, laughed at his cynical humour and passed some pleasant hours in his company. At 35 years old, one day I picked up Of Human Bondage again. It was a much nicer copy, though not a first edition (Doubleday, 1936). Before I closed the book, I looked at the world and its inhabitants differently. 

My admiration only increased when I got to familiarize myself more with his work, and it was shortly after that that I began collecting his first editions. I intend to complete it; I am not exactly a book collector; I have made mistakes and I have learnt quite a bit during this process. 

Why I collect Maugham's First Editions


It took me some time to realize the reason. I began collecting because I felt like it. I am not a habitual collector and these books are the first things I ever collect, besides the indispensable stamps I carefully and diligently removed from envelopes as a child, or the mates (the gourds, not the homo sapiens) I couldn't help buying, or the pipes that I accumulate more than smoke... Okay, I retract my statement. I do collect stuff, but never seriously nor getting out of my way to search for them.

I suspect my interest in getting Maugham's books had to do with my research in the sixteenth century. I like handling the parchment-bound-worm-eaten volumes that are falling apart and wrapped with strings, passing my fingers over the early linen paper, sitting in libraries with ancient bookshelves, antique furniture, and terribly uncomfortable chairs. Books I can never take home.

However, I am quite content leaving them there. I have several authors that I like a lot and read several of their books, though never all, and their biographies usually arouse my minimum interest. In a sense, Maugham is an exception.

Then suddenly it dawns on me. There is something very personal in Maugham's writing, the persona he creates strikes a chord in people with certain dispositions, as if despite the distance in time and space, he can be one of your most intimate friends. Then the first editions are seen in a different light.

They are not collections for collecting's sake. They are in the state presented by Maugham when he first finished a work. He approved of or was consulted about the cover, the design, the type of paper and font. He had pored over the proofs and corrected until he was satisfied with the product that is now in my hands. It is a book that he knew, in its first state to be let out to the world. It seems then, ridiculous as it sounds, there is a link, a closeness otherwise unreachable; and the book assumes an additional significance.

Here I will share my progress with admirers of Maugham. Certainly one thing that I enjoy most, as a researcher on more remote centuries, is to be able to see my favourite author's pictures, witness how he talks and moves in video clips and listen to his voice reading his own masterly crafted stories.

First Stated Edition


When collecting Maugham's books, one thing I have learnt is the first stated edition. For more contemporary paperbacks it is a more complicated operation, but for Maugham's first editions, what one has to look for is the line "First published [year]" on the verso of the title leaf, which is the page that comes after the title page.

In Maugham's later books, it is not unusual to have reprints in the first year, so when I browse through the catalogue for first editions, I learn to write to the seller and ask directly if it is a first stated edition or not, although they state in the description that it is, after having bought reprint from first edition more than twice. I gather that some sellers put it as first edition because it is the year that the book was first published, but others are from pure negligence or oversight.

In such circumstance, insist. Most of the time one gets a refund. That is why one should buy from trusted websites, because even if the sellers do not respond, one always gets an extra protection. Once I got through AbeBooks a second reprint of the first edition, which was published in the same year as the first edition; the seller did not respond, I initiated a refund; but the postage for returning the book was more than the book itself, and I would not get a full refund for shipping. However, by insisting, AbeBooks agreed to pay the shipping.

After that, I always write to the seller before buying, so that they have a chance to double check and also that gives me an extra guarantee. It is frustrating to wait for the wrong book and start looking for the right one all over again, on top of losing money.

First Trade Edition/First Thus


Sometimes one sees the description "First Trade Edition" or "First Thus," which simply means that all outward evidence points to the fact that it is the first edition, but it is not stated so inside the book.

One example would be the books published by Doran, which, during the 1920s, did not include any first edition statement, except that the first edition includes the initial GHD on the copyright page (verso of the title leaf).




An example of first trade edition can be found in Maugham's Strictly Personal (1941); five hundred and fifteen signed copies were issued. The edition that came out afterwards then becomes the first trade edition.

Dust Jacket


This does make a difference in book collecting. Books that come with dust jacket usually cost at least double the price than the ones coming without. Its acquisition depends on one's budget. I will be providing photo of the ones that I have in the individual posts.

Bookjackers


There is something else that one should be aware of: the bookjackers. Different from regular booksellers who catalogue their holdings and sell you the book, bookjackers don't actually have the books on their catalogues. They act as middlemen, when you haven't asked for their service, and place your order to the booksellers who have the books to have them sent to you, on the way pocket the extra.

I came across some, all from Amazon Marketplace, that when I asked for details about a book, they replied something inconsequential with signatures from some strange companies that had nothing to do with books. When I insisted, they said they had a lot of warehouses and couldn't say which copy I would get. Almost without exception I would be wary when a bookseller tells me that they have no access to their storage to check the book for me, not to mention those that never bother to answer. After all, this is a monetary transaction, and that is the minimum service expected.

The only way to avoid doing business with bookjackers is to cross check catalogues. There is no way out of hard work to build a meaningful collection, and that is part of the charm and satisfaction.

                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                       `                                            
                                                 ,.     `:,:.,  ,,                                  
                                                `     `:   .:  ;##                                  
                                             `   @@` `    ,+   ;'+#'                                
                                         `,,.  +##  .:  ,,:   ,::,` :;,                             
                                      `'.'`;#+##+.;'## ` :.   ;`    ,                               
                                  `:+##`. `#;#` `.'':,   +   ..`.       ,`                          
                                 `+@@#  . ##.  ` ;; ,.  '   `     .     :,                          
                            `    ++##     # `  `.`.        ,;  `    :..,.                           
                           `    :;'#     .`   . : ,        ,:         ;,   ,:`                      
                           `  .`` '.   ` . `  ;`'   , `    :, .        `  .,,+,                     
                           ,  ,,  #   .. `    ,    `. :  ` ;`       ``   .. :,+                     
                          .:   :` +     `   :, `    ` ,  `.:     `       .     `                    
                                . '    `     . .   `. .  `..     `           ;.                     
                         `        '    ``    , . `       ,.      .       `  :+` '+.                 
                       `          ;              `  `   `:       `         .: .  `#,                
                              `    ``       `      . .  .:  `              ;.`  .@@#                
                     `        `           ` ,`     `    ,,  `    `    `   ,;,  '@' '.               
                    `         `             ,.   `.  .  ;.  ``   `        `,  ,@;   `.              
                      ``,                   ``   ``  .  :   `.   ,           ,#,  ##++`             
                         ,`  :                    `  + `'   ;`              ;''  ,   `.             
                             :'         `  `      `  # ,'   :        .     ::,        `             
                            `':             ``       ,,,'  `       `````  `;.      `,               
                         ` :,`     `,``               :::  `  `    `,      .`   .;,                 
                         `  ;    ```                  . ; `   `    ``      ,` ,,;`     `            
                        :;,::   ,.                      ,                    `:,   `;:,`            
                         ``,    `      .,.`             .                    `     .. ,.            
                       ,'::+         `    `                     `             ``       ,            
                      .;,:;:         `                                         ``                   
                         #`                                                   :+      `             
                      ``;#                                      `             :..::.  .`            
                      :.,+,     .`                                                 .;` `            
                     `:, +'                           ```    ``,..   ':`       .;,  .  ,`           
                      ```'`            `                               :;       .      :`           
                      `  ,     ..,.`..':                                 .`     .     `.            
                     ..```    `               `.              ,,,:'':          `+,    ,,            
                       ,+    .                   ....`..            `:;':      ,:                   
                       '.   `           `            `                   ,`     +:    `             
                    `...   `        `;:;:`                    ` `.,:;,.   `      ,;,  `..,`         
                   `.,,                 .,,.           `  `.`````.  .. ,'            .:             
                                           .,,.                         `'       :.  ::             
                    :`        ``  .:;::.     `.`                  :'+#+  .:      ,   ..             
                   .,.         `    `.:,;;`    ```          ```,,;`    +. .`     .                  
              .#,                        .,`      `.```... `            :.       .     ,            
               #@               `,,,                            .,:,:,.  :            ``            
               :@`             `                                          ,      `                  
            .   ,:  `             ,+:                        `                  .   .  .``      `   
            `.   ;  .           :,'#@+                               ```         `  `  ,:.          
             #   ,` `          .,  :####@  ,`                        , `.        .:,.`              
             @+   .           :     ,:#+@@@@+         `           :#+`             .,               
             +,   ,          :;     ::'+@++@#;        `      `,,+#+##+    `        ``    ``         
           ` , ,  `      `  ;+,  `    `##`.@#:`       ``   ..+#;''..;#@+,  ..     `  .`  `          
          ``   +            +;`         ;+`#@'+.  `   `   `.::. :  ` ,;##+..`           .           
               ##          .'+`.   .;`    ,:: ##,          `    ,` ;;##;,+;'           .            
            `  #@+          ;++' '@'  @@   ##.:#'         :  .+.      `  `;+.          +            
               #@'          ,##:` `@@@@@+'  ##.:+        ,, `'.            +.         ',            
               +.          `:'`.   +@@@  ,+  +, '`       ,` '. '#+ @@                #              
            ` ..           ,'  `.         #,    +`       ``.:+; @@;@@#.   #'        +@              
            ` ,             `   ..         `    ;        ,. +.  @@@@# ;+;` .       .#'              
           `` ,            ,      ,;:`   ',    `.                #@#    '`         #:   `           
            `              .            :# `   ;`                         `       '#                
            `             `,  .        `;`,.  `'          ` ,'.     `:    .;`     ,+                
          ` . `    `       `  ``  `     `,;   :`      .    : ;+:    `      .       `                
              `                ;.       ''   `,       ..   +. :       ``  ``        `  `            
                              .,,     `'+    ,.       .,   ,+    `:'';,,   .        `  `            
                ,             `.     `',     `        .:`   +.       `:.   .          `             
            `.  :.                 .`.                .`     :       ,'               `             
             .  +.          ,   `  ,                  .  ,   ,:      ``            `                
             ` :#          ` `   `,                           ;#;`  `   ``         :                
             ` ::          `,+'` `.       `...            `     ..               ;                  
             ,    ;       `,'+;. `       :+;';     .      `         `   ``      ;+                  
             .   ;@#      `,:,          ,#, ;'    ``   .:.         ,::` `.      +:                  
           ``  .+@@#.    .`.,     `    ,+#  ,:     `   .'',         .;;  :      ,;                  
                .   :    ..`    ,.    :;+:         `      :.              .    .                    
       `            :    `     ::    ;' ,          `      :;           `       :                    
      `.            #`   .    `+.    +   ;:                '`                 `;                    
         `         `#    `    ::    ;,   ,#+@;            .:+           `     ,:   `                
                   ,#    `   ';    .;    ``@@@         @@'  #:    `,`         .`                    
                   :;       `;.    ,.    ` :'@' .::; `@@'   ;+.    `     `    `                     
          `        ,;       ,`     `     ` .;@@;#@@@@@+:     +.    `     `    `                     
           `` `  ` ,:       `    `.`      `  .'@@@@+.        ,+.   `    `    `                      
                   .:            ,        ``.,.;@+            ',   ,         .`                     
                 ``::    `  ,  `:,          `.;,              `'   ,         .                      
                   ..    ,  `   ;                              ;`            `                      
              `    ,;    :     ., .                    `       ,.                                   
                   ,#    ,     :        ,. `':                  ;   `       .                       
                   +@    `    .' ;:``:'@@@@@@@@    ``           ,           @,                      
           `      ,#@'   `    .` ;+#+; ;#`  ;#@+ ;@@@@@,         `          @#`                     
                 ,'+##   .   .`                `:+@@@##@@;         ``      '@+.,                    
            `   .: .'#   .`  `                          `+#+.              #+,`;,                   
  `      .,:;` ;,#` ,#`  `          :`                     ;##:.   ``     ,+`..,:`                  
   ``` `` .`   :     @#             :                              ``     #:   `                    
   .`` `,`    .`  .,.##            ``                               `    ,#;`      `                
`` `          `,` ` .'#:     `;    ,        ```  `                        :+`                       
            :` ``   :;@+  `   ;`   ,     `   ``   ,:.`.:   `.  `        .  :`          `            
`      `   ``,  .   `.;`      ..   ,         ``   ```.`     ,  ``      '`  ; `                      
       .` .  `     .,;'    `   `   `                        `  `      ,'   ; `                      
         .`        `. '     :      ``                                .;    :                `       
         .            #`  , ,.  ``  ,                       `       `'.    ` `               `      
         `          `:#    ` ;  :    `.                             +:                        `     
        `            .;.   `  ;,.    `.                     ``     ++       ``                   `  
       `     .      `.;,       '   .  .`                   :      '',        `                    ` 
                 `   :;`     . `.  `  ,.                         +;;,        `                      
                ``  ` '         ,` `  `.;                    .:+#:;+`     `                         
          ```   `. `  ,         `.`     ;,     `             ,#+;:;,      ` `                       
       .  `` `.  `                ,`    ..`                 ';.`.,:`      `                         
     ,``      `          `   `    `.` : :','            `,;:'   ``        ` `                       
    ,':           .:,`` .`            +.  ;#@#'.`  ;+  `##' ,  `,,          `                       
   .;..                 .        .    .:` : ;@#@##@@@@@@@,    ...          ``                       
   :,              `;   `              ,+#       `@@@@@##,    .:`        ` ``                       
   :                ..,                 `  .  ``   .',       `+`         .                          
 `;                 ::   : `  `,       .;     @#`@@@@@@. `` `.,                                     
 .`                  `   .                  ,@ ,@@@@:  @  ` ,,                                      
:   `                ... .         `       ,` :@@@@    ;#   ,.                                      
,               .`    ,, ` ,              `# ;@@@#     +@                                           
`                      . . `              #  @@@      ,@@#                             #    .': `, +
 `                       .  `      `     @`,@@@        ;+@                            `++   `+'  ` #

'#+#'#+#+#'#+########'#####'#+#+@#####+#'#'#+######@##@+@+@+@#@###+@+@+@#@#@@#@+@+@#@#@#@#@@#####@+@#@+##@#@#@@#@@#+@#@@@@##'#+@#@@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@#@+@#@#@'@#@@#@#@@#'###+#+###+#######@+#+#'##@#@###@#,@+@#######+#+@+@@@#@##@#@#@@@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#+@#@#@@@##@###@#@@##@@#@#@#@##@#@@@#@
'@+#'#+#+##@#@###+#;#+@##+#+@###@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@#@@@@#@;@#@#@@#@#@+##@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@+@+@##+@#@#@#@@@@###@+@#@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@+##@###@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+##@+@+@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@@@
##+#;@+@+#'@#@#@#@@###@@@@@+@#@+@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@#@@+@#@#@#@@+@+@+@@@@+@+@#+;++@+@#@#@#@#@@@#@@+@#@+@#@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@###@+##@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@
#+#+@+#+@'@+@+@@@#@@@@####+@##+#@###@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@##@#@#@+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@@#@##.,,#+@+@+@+@#@#@#@@#@#@+@+##@@@@#@+@#@#@@###@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
'@+#'@+#+#+##@#+@#@'#+##@##+@+#+##+#'###'#+##@###+#+#:@+@#@#@#+#'#+@#@#+@##+@#@@#@#@+;,,'#+@#@;@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+##@#@@+@+@###@@###@#@@###@+##@#@@###@#@@#@@#@##@#@#@@@@@@
@+#+#'@+#+#+@###@@###@#@###@##+@###+@#@+#+@+@##@#@##+@+@#@@@@##+@#@#@@###@+@#@@#@#@#,,,,++@+@#@+##@@@#@@#@#@+@+@@###@+@#@#@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+#+#'@+@+@+@#@@+@#@##+@###@#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@##@+@+##@'@#@#@#@@+#+@#@#@##@#@#@@@@+@#@',::;#+@#@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@##@@@#@@@@@@
#+#+#####+####'#+#+#+#+#+#+@###@###'##@###@#@@#@#@#@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@:,:,'#@#@#@#@@@@@##@+@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@@#@##+@@@@@@+@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
####+##+#####'#'@+#'#;#'#+######+#+#+##########+@'@+#'@@@###+#+@#@###+@+@#@@@@#@+@#@,:,:'@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@##@@#@@@@@@@@
@###@#+#'#@###;###+@+@+@+@+@#####+@+@@#@###@+@#@+@+@#@@@@@@+#+##@@##+@+@##,,:##+#+@#:,:,+#@@#@@@@';:##+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@+@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@
#@@@##@#@@@#@+@#@#@+@#@#@#@##@#@#@+@##@#@+##@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@.,.:.'#+@@@,:,;'@@@@#@':;:;;#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#+@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
+#+###+#'@#@+#+@#@#@+@###@###'#'#'@#@#+#+###+#'@#@#@##@@@##+##@#+#+@#@+@@',:,,..;#@@:,;:##@@#;;,::;.'#+@#@#@@#@###@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+#+#'#+##@.#+@#+###########+#+#+#+##+#+#+#'#+#+###@##+#+@'##@###+@+@+####;,,,,,.;'#,;,;;#@':,::::`:#+@#@##@####+@+#@@@##+@#@@@##@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@@@@@
'#+@+@'#'###+##@###@#@@###@#@+@#@#@#@@+@+##@#@+@@@##@+@+@+@##@+#+@#@#@@####';,,,,,;';:::+#:::;,,`,'#+####+#'#+#+@+#+##+#+@#@#@#+#+@#@@@@#@+@#@@@##@###@#@@@@#@##@@@@@@@
@+@##'@+@##+@+@###@#@@#@#@##+@#@#@@@@#@###@#@#@@@##@+@#@+@#@##@+#+@#@#@@@@+@+#,:,::+:::,#,:,;..:#+@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+@##@##+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@
+#+#+#'#+#'#+###+'#+#+###'+'++######+#+#+##@+####+#+@+@+@#@##@+@+@#@@####+@#@#@':,:';,,:+;,:.;+@####@##+#+#+@###@#####+@@@@#@#@#@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@+@#@+@#@##@'##@##'#+#+######@#+#;@+########+#'#'#+@+@###'#+##@#####+@#@##@##::':,:,',:,+@##@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@@##@#+##@@#@##'@#@#@@#@+#+@#@@##+#+####@@##@##@#@@@@@@@
+##@+#+@#@+@#####+@#@+@+#+#+##@@###@+@#@#@##@+##@+@+#+@#@##@+##@@#@##+@###@@##@@##+#,,::',;###@#@###@##+@###@#@@@@@@+##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@
##@#@+@#@#@#@@#@+##@##+#+##@#@##@###@+@#@####@#@+@#@+@#@#@@+@+@#@@#@+@#@+@#@@@@#@#+',,::#,;#@##@@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#####@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@@##@@#@@@@@@@
##+#+#####+@#+#+#+#+#+#'#'#+##+#'#'#;+#####+#'#:#+@+###@@@##+@#@#+###+@#@@@##@#@+:.'.;,;;;,;##@#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@#####@@#@#@###@#@@#@#@##@@@@#####@@@@@###@###@@@@@@#@@@
@#@#@+#########@+#'#'#;#+####@#+@+#+@+@@@@#@#@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#:,:,::;:#,;:;#+####@#@#@#@#@@@@@@+###@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@##+@@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@#@######@+#+@+@#@+######@###+#'#+#+'''''';';'''''+++#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,:.::'#::;::'#@+@##+##@@#@#@#@#@###@@#@;@#@+'''''';''''''+@#@###@@@###'''''@@@@@@#@@@
+###+#+#+#+#'#+#####+######+#+#'#;'''';';';''';'''''''''''';+##########@#@##@#.,,.,;::::+';:;,.++#+@+##@@@#@@###@#@+@#@###'''''''''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@'''+''@@@#@##@@@
@######+@+@+@+@+##@#@#@#@##@#+''''''''''';''';';'''''''''''''':'#+@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,.#@,;:;'##;::::'#####@@@@@@#@#@#@@##@@#'''''''''''''''''''''''''+@#@#''''+++@@@#@#@@@@
#@@#####+##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@###';';';'''';';''''';'''''''''''''':;,;'#@#@@@@#@',,.,,+#@::;;####;:,::'#@#@@@@@#@@@;+##@#@@'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+@'''''+'+#@@@@@@@@@
#########+#+#+@+@#@#@#@#@#'''';';'''''';';''''';'''''''';''';::,,:''####+@;,,,,,#@##,:::#####:;::;'@@@@####@@,,:###@#''''''''''''''''+++'''''''++''''''''++'+#@#@@@@@@@
##+##@+#+@##+@##########'''''''''''''';'''''''''''''''''''''':,,,,:''@@@@',.,.:#@@#@,,:;###@#@;;:::'@#@#@#@#:,:;:+#'''''''''''''''##@@@@@@+''+''''''''''''+'@#@@@@@@@@@
##+#@+####@'@#@#@##@@@+'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';:,:,::''#@+,.,.:#@@###,,,;@#@#@##:':;;;@#@#@+,,::,,@'''''''''''''''##@@@@@##@#++'+'''''''''''@@#@@@@@@@@@
##+@####+###@#@@@####'';''''''''''+''''''''''''''''''''''##'''';,:::,'';,,,.;#@@#@#@,,,;#@#@#@@@'':;:+@#@;,,;:.'#+'''''''''''''+#@@@@@@@@@@#@#''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@@@@
#+#############@##'#'''';''''''####+#;'''''''''''''''''@@@@@@+''',,,::;,:..:#@@@@@#@,,.'@@@#@###@:;:::##,,,,,:#@+'''''''''''''+#@@#@@@#@@@##@@+''''''''+''#@#@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@@@#@#@@@@@#@@#+'''''''''''@@####+@'''''''''''''''''#@@@@#@+''':;:::::,:#@#@@#@#@::,;#@@@#####@;:,;::,,:,##@'''''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@''''''''''+#@@@@@@@#@#@@
@@@##@@@@@##@#####'''''''''''######+##''''''''''''''''@#@@@@@#@'''':::,,,:'@@@@@@#@@:,:;@@@@#####@#:,:;:,:,+#@'''''''''''''''@#@@@@@@@@##@@@@#@#'''''''+'#@@#@@@@#@#@@@
#@#@#@@#####@##+#''''''''''''@##+#+##@''''''''''''''''@#@@@####@''''::,,:'''@@#@#@@@::,.#########@@@.,,,:'@@#+''''''''''''''+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@###'''''''''#@@@@@@@@#@@@@
##@@+#+##@##+#+#''''''''''''###'###+@#''''''''''''''''@@@#####@@@''::,,,''''+@##@@@#',;,##@#@#@@@@@@@,,,:'#@''''''''''''''''##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@#'+'+''''@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
##@@###@#######+''''''''''''@########@''''''''''''''''@@@#@##@@@@':::,,;'''''#@@@@@@.:.:+#@@#@@@@##@@+,:::#+''''''''''''''''#@##@##+##@#@@#@#####''''''''#@@@@#@###@@@@
@#@####@######+''''''''''''##@###@@###''''''''''''''''#@##+##@@@@',,,,''''''''@@@@@#,,::##@#@#@@#@@@#@':,:,''''''''''''''''+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@#'+'''''@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
@#@####@#####@'''''''''''''#@###@@@@#@''''''''''''''''@@@##@@@#@@,,,:'''''''''@@@@@@.,,:##@###@###@@@#@;:.,:'''''''''';''''@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#'''''''@@@@@#@@@@@@@@
######@##@#@#@'''''''''''''@####@#@#@#''''''''''''''''####@@@#@#,.:,;'''''''''@@@#@#:,:,#@@@@@#@#@@@#@#@,:,:;''''''''''''''@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@'+'+'''@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@##@#@@@@#@##'''''''''''''+@#####@@@@#+'''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@#'.:,:'''''''''''##@@@:,:;##@#@###@+@#@#@##,,,:''''''''''''''#@+@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@#@#'''''''##@#@###@#@@@@
#@###@####+#''''';';'''''''+@+@#@#@@@@'''''''''''''''+@#@@@#@##,',,';'''''''''''@#@@:,,'+#+@+#+@#@#@#@+@#'::::';';''''''''#@###@###@@#@+@+@@@##@#@'+'''''#####@#@#@@@@@
#@@@#@##@#@#';''''''''''''@#+##@+@#@#@'''''''''''''''#@@@@#@#@+',,;;'''''''''''''@@@:,,;#+@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@#::::;';'''''''';#+#'#+@##@##+#####@#@#@#'''''''++@@#@@@@@#@@@
###+########'':''''''';'''+######;#'##''''''''''':,';@#@#@@#@+##,;'';''''''''''''#@@;,:'+###+@#@#@#@#@#@@'':,:,'''''''''''@@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@'''++''#@#@@@@@@#@#@@
#@#@+@#####'''''''''''''';+#@##@##+@+@''''''''''',,,:+@@@@#@+,+#.#''';'''''''''''@@@,;,'#+@+#+@+@#@+@#@#@'';::::;''''''''':;#+@##@#@#@+@@@@#@#@@@@#''+'''@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
#@@+##@##@#''';'''''''''''#@@###@+@+@#'''''';';',,,,,.'##@@+..:`+#;';'''''''';''''@@;,,+'#+@+@+##@+#+@+##'''::,,;;'''''';:.,'##@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@'+'+'+#@@#@#@+@#@#@@
@##@+@#+@+@;''''''''''''''@####@+@#@#@+'';';''''',,,:.;,+#+:.,.:++'''''''''';';'''@#..,;#+@+@+@#@#@#@#@#+''';:,:.''''':::,:,;'@##@+@'##@@##+@+#@#@#''';''+@+######@#@@@
+##+@#+#+#;''';'''''''''''+###@##+@#@@'''';';';''';:,:,;.:@...,###;';'''''''';';''@@,,,''#+###+##@#@+##@'''''::,,:'':,,,,,.,'###@#@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@@#'''''''@@###@#@#@#@@
@+###+#'#+''';'''''''''''''#'#+#'####@''';';';';'''';,',;,,,.:+'@'';'''''''';'''''##::,;#+@##+#@@@@#@@@@'''''',,,:;:::,:,.##@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@+''+'+'+@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+@+###'#+@''''''''''''''''##@+@+@+@#@#+';';';''''''''+';.;,.:,##+#;'''''''';''''''+#:,.;'#+#+##@########''''';;,,,:,::,,:+#@#@@##+#+@#@##@+@#@@@@#+'''+'++@@#@#@@@#@@#@
@+@+#'@+@+';'''''''''''''''####@+##@#@#'';'''''''''''+#@,:,,.##+@+'''''''''''''''''#,.'+#+@###@@+@+#@@#+'''';'':,:,:,,';'+@@####'@#@#@@+#+##@@##+#+''''''+##@@#@###@+@#
+#'#+#+#++;''''''''''''''''####+#+@+@##''';''''''''''#@#+:,`,##@+''''''''''''''''''@.,:+##@@#@@@@#@@@#@'';''''';:,:,;';''@@#@#@+####@@#@#@#@@@@+##@'++++'@#@@@@@@#@#@#@
@#@#@+@+@''''''''''''''''''##@#@+@#@@@+'';'''''''''''@+@,,..'+#+@''''''';''''''''''#,,:'@####@@@+@#@#@#'''''''''::,,;''''@##+#+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@##+++'@#@#@@@@@@#@+@@
:+;#'#:+'':'''''''';''';''';+'#'@+#+##;';';'''''''''';@'.,..##+#+'''''';';'''''';''@.;.'+#####@#@+@##+''''''''''':,,:';''+#+#+@#@@#@##+@#@@@@##+##@#@#@@+@#@@@@#@####+#
@+#+##@+@''''''''';';';';'''+@#@+@####+;';'''''''''';'#:..`++'#+#''''''';';'''''';'#,.,'##@@+@+##@#@+''''''''''''::,:;'''@+@#@#@#@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@@
##+@'###+'''''''';';''';''';#+@#@#@##@+'''''''''''''''@`...#@#+@+'''''''';';'''';''#,:.++@###+@+@#@#@'''';''''''';:,,;'''#@+@+@#@#+@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@#+@@@##@@#@#@#@#@#@#@
@+@+#'@+@''''''''';';';';';';####@###++;'''''''''';''';:..+@#+#+@''''''''';''''''''#,.:+@@#@#@#@#@#@+'''''''''';'',,,:'''@+@+@#@##@+@###@@#++@++@@@+@+@+++++#@#@#@###@@
##+@'@#@#'''''''';';';';';';'+#+@###+#''''''';''';';'':.,.####'@+'''''';';';'''';';#.:.#'@###+#+@+@#@+''';'''''''':,,:;'''@+@+@#@@###@#@@@@+@+#+##@++##+++@+@#@#@#@##@@
@##+@+@#@''''''''';';';';';';++##@####';'''''''''';'''.:.++##+#+'''''';';'''';';''++:,:'#@+##@+@#@+@+@''''''''';''',,,:'''#@#@@#@+@+@#@@#@+++#@+@#+++#@+@#@+++#@@@@###@
##+@+@###'''''''';';';';';';''####+#+#''''''';''';';',:.,'##+@+@+'''''';';'''';'''##,:,+###+#+#+@#@#@@''''''''''''':,::'''@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@'+'@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@
####@#@##+;''''';''''''''''''#####@+##''''''''''''''':,:;####+@#@''''';'''''';';''@#:.,'##+@#@#@@@#@#@+''''''''''''':,:;'+@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@##'''+'@@@@#@@@@@@@@#@
###@#@###+''''''';'''''''''''@#@+#+##@'''''''''''''';:,,###@#@#@@'''''''''''''''''@+,:,+@#@#@#@@@@##@@'''''''''''''',:,,''@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@++'''+@@@@@@@@@@@#@#@
####@#####;';'''''''''''''';++##@+@###'''''''''''''',:,.#+#+@###+';'''''''''''''''#+;,,++@+@@#@#@+@#@##''''''''''''':,,:''##@###@@###@#@#@@#@#@#@@'''''++##@#@@@@#####@
###@#@#@##''''''''''''''''''##+@#@#@##'''::;'''''''':,,;+####@###'''''''''''''''''@+::,+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@'''''''''''''',:,''#@@@@@@@##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@+''+++###@@@@#@@#@#@@
#####+####''''''''''''''''''#+#+@+@###;'',,,,:;'''':::;;#;####+#;'''''''';';'''';###::.+#+@+##@#@#@##@@'''''''''''''':,:,'@@@@#';,,'#@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''''++@#@#@##@####@@
##@#+####+#'''';''''''''''''+#+#+#+@##'';::,,,,,:;',;:,####@#@@#'''''''''''''''''#@'::;##@#@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':::,'##':,,,,,,+#@@@####@@@@@+''+''#@@@##@#@@#@@@@
#@#@@####@#'''''''''''''''''+'#+##@###;';::,,,,,,::::::'#;+#+@##,:::::,::+#;::::::#+::;';',:'';''+''++';;;;;''''''''''::,:.,:::,::,,+#@@@@@@#@@@@@''''''@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@
##@##@#####''''''''''''''''''####@@@##''''';;,,,:::,:,+@###@#@@#,:;:::::#,'#:++:,'#,+'#+''+#'+:';###:,:;::::'''''''''',:::,::;::,`.'+@@@@@@##@#@@#'+'+++@@@@@##@@#@@@@@
#@+#+#+#+###''''''';''''''''+#@#@#+#+#'''''''''':::;::+###@#+@##,::::::,#,+#,'+:,##,+'+:;;##';,';###:,::;:::;''''''''':,::,,:.`'+#####@@@@@##@#@##'++'+'@@@@@@@@@##@@@@
@#@#@###@@@@'''''''''''''''''@@@#@@#@#'''''''''''':,::+@#@@@@#@#,,:,::,,':##,+#:''#,:++;++#++;,++###:::;::::''''''''''',:,:'##@@###@@@@@@@@##@@@@+'++'''#@@@@@@@@##@@@@
##@#@#####@@''''''''''''''''@#@@#@####'''''''''''':::;###@@@@###''''''''''''++''#+@';:;####+'+'''';;:.,,.,,.''''''''''':,::#@@####@@@@@@@##@@@@@@'''''''@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@
#@@@@####@@##''''''''''''''''@@@@@#@##'''''''''''':,:'#@@#@@@###'''''''''''''''+#@@+,:'#@##+@#@#@#@#@#@@#''''';''''''''.:,:+@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@#@#@#+'+''''##@#@###@##++@@
@@@#@#@@@@#@#''''''''''''''''@@@@#####''''''''''';:::''@#@@@#@#@'''''''''''''''###@'::;+#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@'''''''''''''',,,:#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''+'+'#@@@#@#@#@###@@
##@@@@####@##'''''''''''''''+##@@####@'''''''''''::,:;'@##@@#@##'''''''''''''''@#@@':;'+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#'''''''''''''';:,:+#@#@#@@@@@@#@##@@@@@'''+''''@#@#@#@@@##+@@@
###@@#@@@@#@#+''''''''''''''##@#@+####''''''''''':,:;''####@####'''''''''''''''###@':::+##+##@#@@@@@#@@###'''''''''''''',::+@#@+@#@@@@#@#@###@@#+'''+'+'@@#@#@#@###+@@@
##@#@##@@#@#@#''''''''''''''#@#@###@@#''''''''''',:,;''##@@@###@'''''''''''''''@#@@+:::'##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':,:;#@#@#@@@@#@#@@##@@#@'+'''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
##+#+###+#+###''''''''''''''@####+##@#''''''''''':,:;''+###+##@#'''';'''''''';##@@@;;:,+'@+@#@@########+@+#''''''''''''',:::##@+@@@@@@#@#@#@@#@+''+'+'''@@#@#@#@#@@#@@@
@#@+@##+#+@#@+''''''''''''''+@+@#@#@#+'''''''''';:::'''###+#+###''''';'''''';'#@#@@':,:'##@@@######@+@#@+@+'''''''''''''::::+##@#@@#@#@+##@@@#+#'''+++'+@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@
'#+#+';#'#+##@''''''';''';''@+#+#+@#@''''''''''',:,:''';#+@+@#@#'';';';''''''''#@@#,:,,#+#+@@@@@##@#@#@+@+##+''''''';'''::::'+@+@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@'''''++++#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
@+@'';';#+@##@+''';';';';';@+@###@@##''''''''''':::;;';'+#+####++;'''''''';'''#@##@,:.:;####+#+#+@+#+###+#+@#'''''';''''':::'#+##@@#@#@#@@@@+@#''''++'+'@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@
+#'''';''######'';';''''';'+@#@#@##@+''''''''''':::'''''#+@#@##@+'''''''''''''@@@@#;,,,##@#@@@@#@+@+@###@#@@@'''''''''''';:,;+@+@@#@###@@@@#@#+'+'++'+'++@@@@@@#@+##@@@
@#'''''''+@@#@#''''''''';'+@#@#@###+'''''''''''':::';';''####'#'@''''''''';'''###+@,,,:+####+#+#+##@+@####@###'''''''''+'::,;@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@+@'+'++'+'''+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''####+#'''';';';''@#@#@#@#''''''''''';';,,:;''''''@@#@#@#'''''''''''''#@@@#:.,,##@@+@#@#@+@#@@@#@@#@##''''''''''',:,;'@#@@+@#@##@#@+@'''''++'+'+'@@@@#@#@+@@@@@
@@'''''''@#@+@'';';'''''''@@@#@#''';',,:;;'';'';:,,''''''''+#+#+@+''';;;;;;':;'+#'+':.;+####+#+#+@####+######+#'''''''''':,,:'#@@#@@@@@@#@+#''''+'''''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''@@#@+''''';'''''#+###''''''':;;:;,:#,,,:,:;''''''''+#+@#@''',:,,,,,'::,#,#+.+:':';,'.+;:.:,;,;##@#@+@+@''''''''',:,;;'+#++#++'####'+''''''''+'+'@@#@#@@@#@@#@@
@@'''''''#+##''''''''''''@#@''''''''',,;+:;,+:,:,,:'''''''''';@+@@#'',,,,,::#:,,,.#+:;;':';,:'##,:::::'+#+@'@+@#@'''''''',,::::::,:;;::+''''''''''+'+'+'+@###@@@####@+@
#@#'''''''++''''''''''''###'''''''''',,':;:;,,:,:,:''''''''';';'###+',,,,,:,+:;:::##:;,':''.;;##;,;::,+#+@+#+#+@@@''''''':::::::::,::::;''+''+'''+#''+'++#@#@#@@@@@@#@@
@##''''''''''';''';''''##@@'''''''''''''''''':::,,;'''''''''''''+@##+;:';';;;';';::,:,'':+,;:',::;:;:,;##+@+##@##@#'''''';:::::::,::::.;;''''''''##+''''''###@@@@@@##@@
#@##''''''''''''''''''####+'''''''''''''''''''',,,;'''''''''''''+@##@+''''''''''''':,::'###+##@#@######@+@+@#@#@@@#@#'''+;:::,:,,,:::::;'''+'++@#@#@+++++'@#@@@@@@@##@@
@#@##''''''''';''''''@@@#@+''''''''++'@@#@##'+':,::'''''''';';''#@+@+#;'''''''''''':;:.+#@#@#+#####+#+#'#+@#@#@@######'''',::;'''''';';'''''+'##@#@#++'+''#@@@@#@##+@@@
#@#@@#+'''';';';';'+###@@#+';';';#+@#@@#@#@+@+@.:.+++''';';';''+@+#'@+#+#+;';';'''':,:,+@#@##@#@##+@+@#@+@#@@####+@+#+@##',::;;';'';';';';'++@+#+#+@''''';+#@@#@##+#@@@
@####++++';';';''++++#@####;';';+++++++#+#+#'#+,,;'++'+++'';++++'@+###+++++'+'+++++:,,:@#####+@+@+@+#+@+@###@##@+#+#+#'##+,:::;;';'';';++####+#+@#@#+''';''@@@@@@###@@@
####+'+'+'+'+'+++'#++++#@@++;;;++++++++'+++'++#.,,++++++'+++'#++#'@'@+++++'+'+'#++#::,:+@#@@@@+@#@+@+@#@+@@#@@@+@+@+#+##++:,,''#+#++#+++#+#+'+'##@@@#'';';'+@@#@+#+#@#@
@@#+++++++'+++++'+'+++++###++'#'+'++#++++#+#'##,.:;+++++#'+'#++++#+#+++++++++++++++:,,,#@##@@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@##@#@#@+#+####+:,:'#+#+##+#+#+##+#+#+#@@##''''''+@@@#@#@@@@@
#@#++'+'+##'#'+'+'+++++++##+'++#++'#+++'+'++#+#,:,;'++++'#'++++;#+#+++++'+;++#+++'#.:.,+###@+#+@+#+@+@+###@#@#@+@+#+#+++++:,,''#+##+#++###+#'#+######+''''''+@@+'';#@#@
##+++#+++@+@+#'#'+'#++#++##+#'#+#+++#+++'+'++##,,::++++'#'+'##+#'@'#++#'++#+####+@#:,::###@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+++#++#+:.:'#####@+@@@@##+#+#+######;''+'++++'''''@@@
#++++'#'++#+@+#'+'#++++++++#'#+#+#+#+++'+++'#+#++;;++++#'#+#+@#+@++'##++++'#+#+#@#@.:.,##@#@#@+@#@+@#@@#@#@#@#++#+#+#+##'+:,.++@@@@#@#@@@@##+#+####+#+#'''+'++++'+'++@@
+#+++#'+'#+#+#+#'+'#+#++++#+#+@##+#+#+++'#'++#+#+#++++++#+#+@###+#'+#'+'+'++####+@#:.,:@##@#@+@#@+@#@#@#@@#@#@##+###+##+#++;'+@@@@#@#@@@@@@#######+#+#+'''''';';''''+#+
@+#+#'+'#+@+###+#+#+#++++++#+###+###+++++'+'++#+++++'+'+'+;#+##;#;+'++'+'+:++#+@#+@`:,:+'#'#'''@+#+##@####@+@++'++#+#+#+'#'#+##@@##+@#@#@@#@+######+#+#+'+++'+'+'+'+##@
+#'+'+'+'#+@+@##++'#+++'++#+###+##@##++#'#+#+#+#+#+#+##++#@+@###+#+##+#'#+#+##@@#@+:,::##+@+@'@#@#@#######+#'#'#+####++'++#+##@@##+@#@@@@+##@@####'++++##'';''+'''+'##+
@+#+#'#+#+@#@##+#+#++#+#+#+##@#####+#'+'#+#+#++#++++'+++'#+##@#+#+#++#'#+#+####@@#@`:.:++#+@+@#@#@##@##+##@+@'#+####+#+#'#+##@@@@+@#@@@@@@+@#@###+#+#+###@'+'+'+''+#@#@
+###+#+##@#@#@#+#+#+#+++#+#+@###@@##+#'#+#+####+#+#+#'+'@#####+#+#++#+#+#+##+#+@+@#:,,:'#+@##+@@##@#######+#+#'####+#+#'#+#+#@#@+@+@##@###@#@@@#+#+#+###@##'''+'+'+#+@@
############+#'+'+++'++++#+########+#'#'#+##+#+#+#+#'#+######+#.####+#+###+##'#+@+@.;,:#'###+@##@###@+##@+#+#'++##+#'#'#'#+####+@+####+#+###@###+++++####@+###'++##+#@@
#@#@#@@#@#@#@##+#+#+#+#########@#@#@##+######+#+#+#+#+###@+#'@'##+#+#+#+++##'++@+@#;:::'#+@#@####@#@#@#@#@##+#+####+#+#+#####@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+######+@#@#@@@@#####@@
@##@@#+@+#@@'#'#++'++##++#++#+#+#+#;#+#+#+##+#'#+#+#+#+@#'#+#+#+##+#'###+##+#'#'@@@:;,:###@####'#+#+@#@+#+######+#+#+#+#+###@#@#@#@@#@#@@@@#@#@##########@@@@#######@@#
#@##@#@+#+###'#+++#+#+#########@+@+@#######+#+#+#+####+###+@+@+@#+#+####+###+#+##@@,,,:+@@#@#@#@#@#@@@#@@@#+#+#+#+######+#+@+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@########@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@
###@##+#+###+#+#+#+#+##+###+##@#@#@#@#######+#+#+####+##@+@+##@@+#+#+####+#'#+#+@@+,,,,#@##+@+@+@###@@@#@#######+########+####@@@@@@+@#@@@@#@#@@######+#@@@@@###@@@#@@@
##@#@+@+#+#+#+#+#+#+##+#+#++'#+#+@+##@###+#'#+##+#++'#'#+#+####++'#+##'#:+'#+####'@.,.:++#'#+#+@####@######+#+#'#+########+@#@@##+##@#@@#@#@#@@@@####+##@#@######@#@#@@
#@####+#+#+#+++#+#+#++#+#+#'#+@+##@#####+#'#+##+#+#'#+#+@+@#@@##'#+##+#+#+#+####@@#,.::##+##@##@#@@####@##+#+#+######+#+#+##@@@####@#@@@##@@@@@@@#######@@@@##@@@##@#@@
#+###+#+#+#+#+###+#+##+#+#'#'@+####@#####'#+####+#'#+#+#+@#@@#@+#+####+#+#+#####@#@,,,;####@@@#@@@@#@#@#;##+#+######+#+####@@#@###@#@@#@###@@@@@#+######@#@####@###@#@@
######+#+#+#####+#+####+#+#+##@#@#@@#@##+#+####+#+####@#@@@@#@#######+###########@@,,:'###@#@@@@#@@@@##@###################@@#@#@@@@@@#####@@@@@@#########@##@@@@###@@@
@#@#@###################+####@#@@@#@###+#+#+####+#+##################+############@.:,'#+###@@@@##@@######################@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@########@#@#@@@@#####@@
@#@#@#@#@#@#############++###@@@@@@@#@############+###@@@@@@@@########+##########@@.,:'####@@@@@@@@@@#@###################@@@@@#@@@@@@###@@@@#@#@#####+#+@@@@#@######@@
#######@#@###########+#'#+#####@#@#@#@##+######+#####@@@@@##@####################@@,,:;###@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#############+####@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@#@#@#@######@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@###@@@##################@@@#@@@@@################@@@@@#@####################@@:::'####@@@@#@#@#@#@#########+#+######+@+@+@#@@+@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@##+#+#'@@#@###@###@@#
##@######@############++#########@@###++##############@@@@@@#@@@#####+######+#+##@@;,;;#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@###########+#########@###@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@@@##@####@@@@@#@#@@@##@
##@####@@@##################@@@###@@##################@@##@#@@@@@###+######+#####@@@##+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@#@#####@##@#####@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@
                                                                                               
 



20 comments :

  1. Why don't you put your actual name anywhere on this site? Is it buried on a page and I missed it? It would very nice to know who you are.

    Best,
    Michael House
    director of 'Revealing Mr. Maugham'

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Michael,
      Thank you for taking the time to read my blog and the interest for knowing more about me. I enjoy building up my blog very much but I am not so sure how my internet presence would affect my personal life. Knowing or not knowing who I am does not interfere with sharing what I like with my readers, and if they find some of the things I write about interesting or of use, that is enough for me at the moment. This is purely a personal choice.

      Delete
  2. Do you know of any proof copies of The Painted Veil?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sarah,
      Could you elaborate more on what you mean by "proof copies"? Thanks.

      Delete
    2. A copy that is not bound, signed by WSM with the inscription "proof". And states Hong Kong.

      Delete
  3. http://www.biblio.com/book/gentleman-parlour-maugham-w-somerset/d/485769326
    Like that, a uncorrected "proof".

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. As far as I know, I haven't come across a "proof" copy of "The Painted Veil." As for stating Hong Kong, there are several issues/editions/magazine publications that do state that.

      Delete
  4. Dear Collector,
    I am a 22-year-old university student from Italy: I study Foreign Languages and Literatures and, since I have to present a final project to graduate, I am working on a research about Maugham's "The Painted Veil".
    I would like to thank you for the precious information I found here, this website is very useful for my work. But I would like also to ask for your help, as you are very passionate about the writer.
    The aim of my research is to demonstrate that Maugham is a very revolutionary writer, although many critics of his period have adfirmed the opposite. They said that, comparing Maugham to other modernist authors (Joyce, Woolf, distopic literature by Orwell and Huxley....), his writing is too classic, too conventional. He did not create nothing new, like the stream of consciousness or similar devices.
    Have you ever heard something about this issue?
    Do you know something?
    Thank you for your attention.
    P.S. I would love to send you my final thesis once finished, although it will be mostly written in italian.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Silvia,

      Thank you for reading my blog and I am glad to hear that it is of any help at all.

      I would not go so far to say that Maugham is a "revolutionary" writer, but it's true that he has been ignored in the discussion of modernism, or contemporary literary criticism at large, as a matter of fact. However, I would argue that some of his works, such as The Moon and Sixpence and Cakes and Ale are more than conventional narratives. There are some interesting analyses on the former since the '90s. The Summing Up, on the other hand, defies categorization, which in itself is a "new" thing. I would focus on the structure of his storytelling. The fact that his language is easy to read (something that he was very proud of) seems to in some ways condemn him for further analysis.

      If you wish, I would love to read your final thesis. I think I can understand Italian reasonably well, or so I hope. :-)

      Delete
  5. Hello,
    Just wanted to say how much I enjoy your website on Maugham. I am myself a huge Maugham fan and I have a decent Maugham book collection myself. I love his short stories and enjoy his commentary on books and the art of ficion. I saw the video/tribute you posted on youtube and was wondering what that first piece of music was. Again love the pics of Maugham books. I have a great passion for Maugham and his works. Thanks! Carlos from California, USA.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks very much, Carlos! Your comment is very much appreciated! I always love to hear from other people who enjoy Maugham's works, so together we will make sure that he will never be forgotten!

      Which video did you watch? I made three so far, one for his 140th Anniversary, one for the 141st, which is also the 100th of the publication of Of Human Bondage, and this year, last month, I made another that, if you haven't seen it, you may like to, of Maugham reading his own short story "The Happy Couple" .

      For the first video, I used Wagner's Meistersinger (140th birthday), the second one (141st & 100th Of Human Bondage) I used Wagner's Sonate B-dur Allegro, and for the one this year, it's Burgmüller's L'arabesque.

      Hope this helps!

      Delete
    2. And I was going to ask you, how big are your collections? I find myself collecting more and more!

      Delete
  6. Love your very comprehensive site. Longtime fan of Maugham especially his short stories which I ceaselessly reread. For me Maugham is, as you state, one of my most intimate friends. Here is my Maugham Library. There are no 1st editions however I do appreciate that 1st editions reveal more of Maugham particularly his cover selections. I regret not starting my collection with that in mind.

    Ah King
    An Appointment with Somerset Maugham—Richard Hauer Costa
    Ashenden
    Cakes and Ale
    Catalina
    Christmas Holiday
    Collected Short Stories Volumes 1 - 4
    East of Suez
    France at War
    Great Exotic Novels & Short Stories of Somerset Maugham
    Hero, The
    Hour Before the Dawn, The
    Liza of Lambeth
    Maugham A Biography—by Ted Morgan
    Mrs. Craddock
    Narrow Corner, The
    Of Human Bondage
    Pattern of Maugham, The—by Anthony Curtis
    Razor’s Edge, The
    Remembering Mr. Maugham—by Garson Kanin
    Secret Lives of Somerset Maugham, The—by Selina Hastings
    Seventeen Lost Stories by W. Somerset Maugham—Compiled by Craig V. Showalter
    Six Comedies
    Skeptical Romancer—Edited by Pico Iyer
    Somerset and all the Maughams—by Robin Maugham
    Somerset Maugham and his world—by Frederic Raphael
    Somerset Maugham—by Anthony Curtis
    Strictly Personal
    Summing Up, The
    Tellers of Tales
    Ten Novels and their Authors
    Theatre
    Then and Now
    Traveler’s Library
    Trio
    Up at the Villa
    W. Somerset Maugham and the Quest for Freedom—by Robert Lorin Calder
    W. Somerset Maugham Plays: One—Publisher Methuen
    W. Somerset Maugham Plays: Two—Publisher Methuen
    W. Somerset Maugham Sampler, The
    Writer’s Notebook, A

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks, Charles!
      It's a big collection you have of one author! You have several biographies and biographical criticism; how do you like them? I find myself reading bits and pieces of them from time to time. I also like very much the anthologies that Maugham edited. It's an interesting way to get to know what he liked.

      Delete
    2. Kanin’s memoir, Remembering Mr. Maugham, stands out as the one that gave me the most enjoyment. Kanin’s meticulous journals logged the friendship he and his wife Ruth Gordon, shared with Maugham. This memoir has many reflections along with much dialogue, mostly from dinner parties, if I recall correctly, that gives one a greater understanding of Maugham’s personality.

      Delete
    3. Thanks Charles! I read, again, bits of it. I'll definitely keep this one on the more immediate list.

      Delete
  7. Love you ! ❤️ -- a Maugham super fan

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Cristina! Nice to meet another Maugham fan!

      Delete
  8. Hi
    I have just come across your site while browsing for an e-version of The Summing Up. I wanted to copy and paste chapter 55 to send to my two young adult children (plus my son's girlfriend) as they are enthusiastic travellers, and I wanted them to read Maugham's take on why he travelled, what he got out of it, and what he did not get out of travelling. I got what I wanted - the e-book - but far more importantly I want simply to say thank you for a remarkable, unique and fascinating site. I love Maugham as a writer and think he should be up there with the acknowledged greats.
    Keep up the great work.
    Warm regards,
    Martin Stepek

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Martin,
      Thanks very much indeed! Can't agree more! He definitely "should be up there with the acknowledged greats." And I am so glad you've enjoyed my site too!
      Warmest regards to you.

      Delete